To help you learn about the southern night sky, Sydney Observatory provides an audio guide/podcast, transcript of that audio, and a sky map or chart each month. This month’s guide is presented by Geoffrey Wyatt, Astronomy Educator at Sydney Observatory (pictured at right).
Among Geoff’s recommendations for viewing in the southern sky this month are Fomalhaut, the brightest star in Piscis Austrinus (the Southern Fish), Achernar, the brightest star in Eridanus (the River), Orion (the Hunter) within which you can find the beautiful nebula, M42, and Aldebaran, the brightest star in Taurus (the Bull). He also tells you where to find the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.
Geoff’s engaging presentation includes fascinating ancient Greek and even more ancient Indigenous astronomical mythologies. And don’t forget to look out for the Geminid meteor shower on 14th and 15th December. For this and more, listen to the December 2014 night sky guide audio, or read the transcript below.
HEAR THE AUDIO
You can subscribe with iTunes or upload the (42 mins 50 secs) audio to your iPod or mp3 player, or listen to it on your computer.
SEE THE SKY CHART
We provide an embedded sky map (below) and a starmapDec2014 (PDF) which shows the stars, constellations and planets visible in the night sky from anywhere in Australia. To view PDF star charts you will need to download and install Adobe Acrobat Reader if it’s not on your computer already.
December 2014 night sky chart
BUY THE BOOK
Our annual book’The 2015 Australasian sky guide’ by Dr Nick Lomb – this year the 25th edition of the book – has more information and star maps for months from December 2014 until December 2015 inclusive, plus information about the Sun, twilight, the Moon and tides, and a host of other fascinating astronomical information. You can purchase it ($16.95) at Sydney Observatory and Powerhouse Museum shops or other good bookshops, or online through Powerhouse Publishing (additional packing/postage costs apply).
READ THE TRANSCRIPT (after the jump)
The brightest star in Piscis Austrinus is Fomalhaut. Images made by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 2012 revealed a narrow dusty ring probably constrained by a pair of unseen planets. That makes Fomalhaut one of about twenty naked-eye stars to host a multiple-planet system.
ALMA data, in orange, shows a dusty ring (partially imaged) around Fomalhaut. ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO). Visible light image in blue: the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
Piscis Austrinus, the Southern Fish, is high overhead for southern hemisphere observers at present. It’s a challenge to discern the ‘fish’ shape but its brightest star, Fomalhaut, is easily seen with the naked eye.
Fomalhaut is the brightest star in Piscis Austrinus. Chart generated by TheSky6 © Software Bisque, Inc. www.bisque.com.
HOT SUMMER NIGHT PROGRAMS
January 2015 is predicted to be hot, hot hot. So get out and about to Sydney Observatory and enjoy the evening telescope viewing, hearing amazing stories of the night sky and soaking up the atmosphere in one of the most important heritage and scientific sites in Australia. There are programs for families such as the Celestial Pizza nights, and romantic pre and post dinner programs for couples. Book before its too late.
Venus: goddess of love
23, 24, 25 Jan 6:30 to 8:15pm
Enjoy a glass of champagne and nibbles while observing the setting Sun and telescope viewing of Venus (weather permitting) whilst listening to live music in our gorgeous marquee.
Cost: $35 per adult $32 concession and $30 members.
Telescope Express, viewing only
12, 14, 19, 22 Jan 9:30 to 10:30pm.
Telescope viewing only weather permitting, wet weather option is 3D Space Theatre and planetarium. Tickets are limited. This suits adults and high school students and older.
Cost: $50 family, $18 adult, $14 concession; Powerhouse members $43 family, $16 adult, $12 concession.
Dreamtime Astronomy : planetarium and telescope tours
7:30 to 8:30pm, Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays
Hear stories written across the Australian sky as out Aboriginal Guides share their cultural astronomy under the virtual night sky in the planetarium. Then view objects through the telescope.
Cost: $50 family, $18 adult, $12 child; Powerhouse Members $43 family, $16 adult, $11 child.
Celestial Night Tour
8:30 to 10pm. Bookings and prepayment required.
View Orion the Hunter, Taurus the Bull and Canis Major the Great Dog and, at the beginning of the month, the Moon (first week of Jan only), amongst other celestial features through telescopes and experience the new ‘Telescopes’ 3D Space Theatre program. Cost: $50 family, $18 adult, $12 child; Powerhouse Members $43 family, $16 adult, $11 child.BOOK NOW! or phone 02 9921 3485 during office hours (8:30am – 4:30pm) to avoid disappointment. Please read our conditions before booking a tour.
Celestial Pizza Nights
12, 14, 19, 22 Jan 7:30 to 8:15pm
These special nights of pizza, astronomy stories and telescope viewing (weather permitting) are especially for young families.
Cost: $30 adult, $27 concession, $25 child (4 years+), $85 family. MAAS members $25 adult, $22 conc, $20 child, $72 family
The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was launched 25 years ago on 18 September, 1989. It showed that the cosmic microwave background, the cold afterglow of the Big Bang, was not completely uniform. Tiny temperature fluctuations visible in this “map” have grown into enormous galactic structures in the intervening 14 billion years.
COBE made this “map of the early universe” showing tiny variations in the cosmic microwave background. NASA/GSFC
Comets like C67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko formed in the frozen outer regions of the solar system. Virtually unchanged for over 4.5 billion years they provide clues about the formation of the solar system.
In 1892 Henry Russell and James Short photographed Comet Swift from Sydney Observatory.
If all goes to plan the Rosetta spacecraft will release its comet lander Philae just after 8pm (AEDT) tonight. Philae will hopefully make the first ever landing on a comet (67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko) in the early morning hours of Thursday November 13 AEDT. Follow the ESA landing webcast.
How Philae should look after it lands on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Image © ESA.
The GOES X3.1 flare of October 24, 2014. Sketch and copyright Harry Roberts ©, all rights reserved.
As AR12192 crossed the Sun in the second half of October, it not only grew unusually large, but it hosted six GOES class-X flares, the strongest class; the writer logged one of the six. As well, an M8.7 flare was logged on Oct. 21st. This is an account of the X3.1 flare of Oct.24th.
The writer aims to log as much detail as possible of the spot group hosting the flare, hoping to understand the context of these energetic events. Detail of the group’s umbrae and penumbrae and the heliocentric coordinates of major features are recorded. As well, Mt. Wilson’s daily magnetograph data is sampled and added to the sunspot sketch (Fig1). The writer’s sketch is made ~5 hours after Mt Wilson’s worker completes theirs (also in pencil), adding one more to their vast archive. Now mostly digitised, it may be browsed at leisure: a treasure trove! There you will find the biggest spot yet recorded, in April 1947, and twice the area of 12192; the second biggest was in late Jan. 1946. Yes, the biggest spots in 140 years are concentrated around the mid-20th century – but why?
X3.1 flare. With complex spots like 12192 it helps to have the WL sketch ready when a flare erupts: flare ribbons can then be mapped with some accuracy. Since flares change rapidly, transparent overlays record flare motions relative to the more-or-less ‘fixed’ sunspots. Other transients like surges and filaments can be similarly logged.
However, at times of high activity, flares may erupt before the WL sketch is done, thus the X3.1 peak went unnoticed (in H-alpha) and its initial stages missed. Fig 2 shows the flare ~40m after its peak when it had faded to X1.1 but was still large and bright, visual class 2b. This was the biggest of the six X-class flares.
- Big surges had been ejecting from the group’s dominant (f) spot (at –13,242) from the 22nd, and on the 23rd some reached a point 30º lat south of the group – before retracting to their start point –a distance of 370Mm! We noted that the surges emerged (as they do) from the margins of the big (f) spot– and magnetograph data show a curious ‘collar’ of opposite polarity around the big spot’s penumbra– this seemed to promote surging.
Flare geometry. The X3 flare did not much involve the big (f) spot but erupted mainly along a ~N-S line, from the tangle of ‘red’ (p) spots at -10,251, southwards to –25,247. The SDO HMI magnetogram was used to (roughly) plot the group’s inversion line – the boundary between unlike polarities. Its complex windings are mapped as blue lines x-x’ and y-y’. Note the cluster of opposite polarities within the big (f) spot on its west side – one of R18 polarity – line x-x’ winds around it (arrow). Minor flare ribbons traced the gaps between umbrae and the ‘light bridge’ of the big (f) spot (Fig2).
Perhaps the flare arose on the N and W margins of line y-y’ and, as events proceeded, spread away from there. The Oct. 21st M8.7 flare developed toward this region too, SW of the group – where surges also were targeted.
There seems no doubt that AR12192 reached its huge size by a fusion of multiple groups that began back in Sep. when the group was AR12172, and when 12173 emerged nearby – and merged in some way during its far side transit. It has hosted some amazing H-alpha transients – and may well have more on its mid-November return.
Harry Roberts is a Sun and Moon observer, a regular contributor to the Sydney Observatory blog and a member of the Sydney City Skywatchers.
The brick building under Harley Wood’s dome was demolished in 1986. The copper dome and Melbourne astrograph were intended by Macquarie University to continue their scientific work. However, this never came to be. The copper dome and astrograph were returned to the Powerhouse museum in 2008.
The demolition of Wood’s Melbourne astrograph building. Photo by Nick Lomb, ©MAAS.
Harley Wood was the NSW Government Astronomer from 1943 to 1974. The dome he constructed was removed in 1986. The dome and Melbourne astrograph (and many other items) were rescued by Alan Vaughan and Macquarie University.
Wood’s dome being removed in 1986. The Melbourne astrograph is revealed and awaits removal. Photo by Nick Lomb, ©MAAS.